Chef Analytics Rules

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Note

This documentation is meant to support existing Chef customers using Analytics.

If you are a new Chef customer, or are looking to gain better insight into your fleet, try Chef Automate. You’ll get a graphical interface and query language that gives you insight into operational, compliance, and workflow events. Download Chef Automate here.

Chef Analytics includes a powerful rules processing system that allows notifications to be generated based on observed events in the data stream, such as:

  • Cookbook uploads
  • Modifications to environments
  • Machines on which chef-client runs have failed
  • Machines on which audit-mode runs have failed
  • Resources that were updated as a result of a chef-client run

Notifications may be sent to any email address, a chat service like HipChat or Slack, or to a webhook-based service for generic intergrations.

Note

This feature is included as part of the Chef Automate license agreement and is available via subscription.

Rule Syntax

The syntax for a Chef Analytics rule is as follows:

rules 'name'
  with priority=n
  rule 'name' on message_type
  when
    // comment
    function()
  then
    // comment
    function()
  otherwise
    // comment
    function()
  end

  rule ...
    ...
  end

  ...
end

where:

  • rules defines a rules group which is comprised of individual rules (rule)
  • rule defines an individual rule; each rule must be contained in its own rule block
  • with priority=n is a positive or negative integer that defines the relative priority of a rules group as compared to all other rules groups
  • 'name' is name of the rule group and/or the name of the rule; required for rules, optional for each rule
  • message_type is one of the following: action, run_control, run_control_group, run_converge, run_resource, or run_start
  • when is a series of evaluations that result in true or false
  • then is a comma-separated group of statements that are used to test data
  • otherwise is a comma-separated group of statements that are used to test data
  • function() is a statement that tests a value in the JSON object; functions may be one of array:contains(), alert:<level>(), datetime:component(), get(), log(), or mustache_template(). (See “Functions” below for more information about the individual functions.)
  • A comment starts with two forward slashes–//—and continues to the end of the line on which the comment begins
  • Whitespace is ignored by the rules parser unless it contained within single- or double-quoted strings. For example, the parser will preserve the white space in 'white space' and "white space"

Message Types

Each individual rule must be associated with a specific message type. As a rule is triggered during the chef-client run, a message is sent to the Chef Analytics server. A rule may be configured to send notifications about a message to recipients that are located outside of the Chef Analytics server.

A message type must be one of the following:

Message Type Description
action Use to build rules for messages about actions that occur on the Chef server.
run_control Use to build rules for a single audit to be evaluated.
run_control_group Use to build rules for a group of audits to be evaluated.
run_converge Use to build rules for messages that are sent at the end of a chef-client run.
run_resource Use to build rules for messages that are sent as each resource is converged during a chef-client run.
run_start Use to build rules for messages that are sent at the start of a chef-client run.

when

Use when to define an expression. Multiple expressions may be joined using and and or. Expressions may be grouped using parentheses (( )). Expressions may use nested function calls on either side of the expression. The following operators may be used:

Operator Description
= equal to
!= not equal to
> greater than
< less than
>= greater than or equal to; also known as “optimistically greater than”, or “optimistic”
<= less than or equal to
=~ a regular expression
not negates the expression

For example:

rule on action when
  max(1000, data.some_value) = 1000
then
  set(#some_value, data.some_other_value)
end

or:

rule on action when
  some_value > 1000 and
    (max(data.some_other_value, max(100,data.max_field)) = 1000 or data.foo='Some Value')
then
  set(#some_value, data.some_other_value)
end

Expressions

An expression defines a specific test in a rule and uses fields within the expression that are specific to the message type for the rule. For example:

total_resource_count > 1 and
updated_resource_count > 0
array:contains(run_list, 'role[opscode-reporting]')

where both total_resource_count, updated_resource_count, and run_list are the fields specific to a message type.

then

Use the then statement to specify what to do when a rule in the when statement is matched. For example:

rule on action when
  data.name='app1'
then
  set(#foo, '100')
end

When the name matches app1, #foo will be set to 100.

otherwise

Use the otherwise statement to specify what to do when a rule in the when statement is matched, but is not handled by the then statement. For example:

rule on action when
  data.name='app1'
then
  set(#foo, '100')
otherwise
  set(#foo, '200")
end

When the name matches app1, #foo will be set to 100 and if the name does not match app1, #foo will be set to 200.

with priority

Use the with priority statement to specify a positive or negative integer that defines the relative priority of a rules group as compared to all other rules groups. For example:

rules 'rule name'
  with priority=100
    rule on action ...
  ...
end

A rules group with a higher integer value will have priority over any rules groups with lower integer values.

Comments

Use a comment to document the behavior of the rules. A comment starts with a double forward slash—//—and continues to the end of the line on which the comment started. For example:

rules 'user-agent matching'
  rule on action
  when
    // this rule always matches
    true
  then
    // raise an audit for every action
    alert:info('This rule matches all actions')
  end
end

Whitespace

Whitespace is ignored by the rules parser unless it is contained within single- or double-quotes. For example, the following rules are parsed the same way:

rules 'rule'
  rule on action
  when
    true
  then
    alert:info('string')
  end
end

and:

rules 'rule' rule on action when true then audit:info('string') end end

The rules parser does not ignore spaces that are contained within single- or double-quotes. For example

'This is a string. The parser will not ignore the whitespace.'

or:

"This is a string. The parser will not ignore the whitespace."

Strings

A string must be contained in single- or double-quotes and may contain any valid UTF-8 character. For example, a single-quoted string:

'A string.'

or a double-quoted string:

"A string."

or a valid UTF-8 character:

"ᚠᛇᚻ᛫ᛒᛦᚦ᛫ᚠᚱᚩᚠᚢᚱ᛫ᚠᛁᚱᚪ᛫ᚷᛖᚻᚹᛦᛚᚳᚢᛗ"

Use a backslash—\—to escape single-quotes that must appear within a single-quoted string. For example:

'This is a string with \'escaped single quotes\'.'

to escape double-quotes that must appear within a double-quoted string:

"This is a string with \"escaped double quotes\"."

Single-quotes that appear within a double-quoted string do not need to be escaped. Double-quotes that appear in a single-quoted string do not need to be escaped.

For example:

rules 'string example'
  rule on action
  when
    // this rule always matches
    true
  then
    // single quoted string,
    alert:info('This rule matches all \'action\' messages')
  end
end

Numbers

Numbers may be positive or negative integers or floating point values.

  • The valid range for integers is -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807
  • The valid range for floating point numbers is 4.9E-324 to 1.7976931348623157E308; scientific notation is not supported and rounding will occur outside of this range

Numbers may be compared with the following operators:

Operator Description
= Equality.
!= Inequality.
> Greater than.
>= Greater than equal.
< Less than.
<= Less than equal.

Note

If a number is compared to a non-number, the rule will not match and an error is logged.

For example, all of the following are valid numbers:

1

or:

-99999999

or:

1.99999

or:

-999999.000123

For example:

rules 'Match control groups with failures'
  rule on run control group
    when
      name = 'mysql audit' and number_failed > 0
    then
      alert:error('Control group failures detected')
  end
end

Regular Expressions

Use a regular expression to define a search pattern to match against a rule. Use the =~ operator to define the regular expression:

string_to_match =~ regular_expression

For example:

rules 'regex demo'
  rule on action
    when
      // match if the user_agent starts with the string 'Chef Manage'
      user_agent =~ 'Chef Manage.*'
    or
      // match 1 or more lower case characters followed by a single digit
      entity_name =~ '[a-z]+\d'
    then
      nofity('my_webhook')
  end
end

Use the following to match contstructs:

Construct Description
x Use to match the x character.
\ Use to match the backslash character.
\t Use to match the tab character ('\u0009').
\n Use to match the newline (line feed) character ('\u000A').
\r Use to match the carriage-return character ('\u000D').

Use the following to match characters:

Characters Description
[abc] Use to match a, b, or c.
[^abc] Use to match any character except a, b, or c.
[a-zA-Z] Use to match a through z or A through Z, inclusive.
. Use to match any character or a line terminator.
\d Use to match a digit. For example: [0-9].
\D Use to match a non-digit. For example: [^0-9].
\s Use to match a whitespace character. For example: [ \t\n\x0B\f\r].
\S Use to match a non-whitespace character. For example: [^\s].
\w Use to match a word character. For example: [a-zA-Z_0-9].
\W Use to match a non-word character. For example: [^\w].

Use the following to match boundaries:

Boundary Description
^ Use to match the beginning of a line.
$ Use to match the end of a line.
\b Use to match a word boundary.
\B Use to match a non-word boundary.

Nested Fields, Arrays

Some messages that contain nested fields or arrays.

  • Use dot syntax—.foo—to access integer values in nested fields.
  • Use square bracket syntax—[index]—to access integer values in arrays.

Note

If the field does not exist, the rule will return false.

For example, accessing integer values in a nested field:

rules 'Control group matches'
  rule on run control group
    when
      run.chef_server_fqdn = 'mysql.production.foo.com'
    or
      // any node_name with 'production' in it's name
      run.node_name =~ '.*production.*'
    then
      alert:info('production control group match')
  end
end

And accessing integer values in an array:

rules 'Run resource matches'
  rule on run resource
    when
      converge.run_list[0] = 'role[opscode-reporting]'
    or
      some_other.property[0].another_property[99] != 100
    then
      alert:error('Run resource match')
  end
end

Message Fields

The following sections describe the fields that may be used for each of the specific message types.

actions

The following fields are available for the action message type:

Field Type Description
entity_name string The name of the entity. For example: 'app1'.
entity_type string The type of entity. For example: 'node'.
id string The globaly-unique identifier for this message. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
organization_name string The short name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
parent_name string The name of the parent entity. For example: 'apache2'.
parent_type string The type of entity of the parent entity. For example: 'cookbook'.
recorded_at string The ISO timestamp at which the action occurred. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
remote_hostname string The IP address from which the action was initiated. For example: '127.0.0.1'.
remote_request_id string The request identifier generated by the remote client. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
request_id string The Chef server request identifier. For example: 'tG3MRbYB7NFWjFU8shs1YeSxq8CIIMJudpnHJXDnWEWzFSVW'.
requestor_name string The name of the chef-client or user that initiated the action. For example: 'grantmc'.
requestor_type string Indicates if the requestor was a chef-client or a user. For example: 'user'.
service_hostname string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
task string The description of the action that was performed. For example: delete.
user_agent string The User-Agent of the requestor. For example: 'Chef Client/12.0.2 (ruby-2.0.0-p598; x86_64-linux; +http://chef.io)'.

run_control

The following fields are available for the run_control message type:

Field Type Description
context array  
control_group object A JSON object that contains the control group identifier, the name of the control group, the number of tests that passed and failed, and its final status.
control_group.control_group_id string The identifier of the control group object. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
control_group.name string The name of the control group. For example: 'mysql audit'.
control_group.number_failed integer The number of tests within the control group that failed. For example: 7.
control_group.number_succeeded integer The number of tests within the control group that passed. For example: 4.
control_group.status string The status of the control group. For example: 'success'.
details [“string”, “null”] Details about the control object.
id string The globaly-unique identifier for this message. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
name string The name of the control object. For example: 'should be installed'.
organization_name string The short name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
resource_name [“string”, “null”] The name of the resource in which the control object is present. For example: 'mysql'.
resource_type [“string”, “null”] The resource type for the control object. For example: 'Package'.
run object A JSON object that contains run data, including the chef-client run identifier, the FQDN for the Chef server, the name of the node, and the times at which the chef-client started and finished.
run.chef_server_fqdn string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
run.end_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run finished. For example: '2014-06-05T10:39:43Z'.
run.node_name string The name of the node on which the chef-client run occurred. For example: 'grantmc01-abc'.
run.run_id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
run.start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
sequence_number integer The sequence number at which the resource converged. For example: 2.
status string The status of the control object. For example: 'success'.

run_control_group

The following fields are available for the run_control_group message type:

Field Type Description
error string

The error reported by the chef-client. For example:

"error": {
  "class": "#<TypeError: user[chef] (/var/file.rb line 56) has error",
  "message": "user[chef] (/var/file.rb line 87) has error",
  "backtrace": "[\"/opt/chef/embedded/.../chef/unix.rb:103 \"]",
  "description": {
    "title": "Errorexecutingaction`create`onresource'user[chef]'",
    "sections": [
      { "TypeError": "can'tconvertArrayintoString" },
      { "CookbookTrace: ": "/var/chef/file.rb: 11: action: create\n" }
    ]
  }
}
id string The globaly-unique identifier for this message. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
name string The name of the control group object. For example: 'mysql audit'.
number_failed integer The number of tests within the control group that failed. For example: 7.
number_succeeded integer The number of tests within the control group that passed. For example: 4.
organization_name string The short name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
run object A JSON object that contains run data, including the chef-client run identifier, the FQDN for the Chef server, the name of the node, and the times at which the chef-client started and finished.
run.chef_server_fqdn string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
run.end_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run finished. For example: '2014-06-05T10:39:43Z'.
run.node_name string The name of the node on which the chef-client run occurred. For example: 'grantmc01-abc'.
run.run_id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
run.start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
status string The status of the control object. For example: 'failure'.

run_converge

The following fields are available for the run_converge message type:

Field Type Description
chef_server_fqdn string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
end_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run finished. For example: '2014-06-05T10:39:43Z'.
error object

The details of errors that occurred during the chef-client run, if present. For example:

"error": {
  "class": "#<TypeError: user[chef] (/var/file.rb line 87) has error",
  "message": "user[chef] (/var/file.rb line 87) has error",
  "backtrace": "[\"/opt/chef/embedded/.../chef/unix.rb:103 \"]",
  "description": {
    "title": "Errorexecutingaction`create`onresource'user[chef]'",
    "sections": [
      { "TypeError": "can'tconvertArrayintoString" },
      { "CookbookTrace: ": "/var/chef/file.rb: 11: action: create\n" }
    ]
  }
}
id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
node_name string The name of the node on which the chef-client run occurred. For example: 'grantmc01-abc'.
organization_name string The short name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
resources array An array of resources that were converged during the chef-client run.
run_id string The identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '67890123-4567-8901-2345-67890123456789'.
run_list array The run-list used during the chef-client run. For example: [ 'role[opscode-reporting]' ].
start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
status string The status of the chef-client run. For example: 'success'.
total_resource_count integer The total number of resources in the resource collection for the chef-client run. For example: 4.
updated_resource_count integer The total number of resources that were updated during the chef-client run. For example: 2.

run_resource

The following fields are available for the run_resource message type:

Field Type Description
converge object A JSON object that contains the status of the chef-client run, the name of the organization, the run-list, total resource count, updated resource count, the run identifier, and the times at which the chef-client started and finished.
converge.end_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run finished. For example: '2014-06-05T10:39:43Z'.
converge.id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
converge.organization_name string The name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
converge.run_list array The run-list used during the chef-client run. For example: [ 'role[opscode-reporting]' ].
converge.start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
converge.status string The status of the chef-client run. For example: 'success'.
converge.total_resource_count integer The total number of resources that were converged during the chef-client run. For example: 4.
converge.updated_resource_count integer The total number of resources that were updated during the chef-client run. For example: 2.
cookbook_name string The name of the cookbook that initiated the changes made by this chef-client run. For example: 'chef_handler'.
cookbook_version string The version of the cookbook initiated the changes made by this chef-client run. For example: '0.2.3'.
delta string

The difference between the intial and final value of resource. For example:

--- /etc/motd.tail
2013-06-30 17:41:31.667050237 -0600\n
+++ /tmp/chef-rendered-template 18:11:54.7 -0600\n
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@\n
Chef-Client - jenkins\n
Hostname: jenkins.int.housepub.org\n
Chef Server: https://api.chef.io/orgs/org\n
-Last Run: 2013-06-30 17:41:31 -0600\n
+Last Run:2013-06-30 18:11:54 -0600\n
\n
Roles:\n
debian
duration string The duration of the chef-client run. For example: '1200'.
final_state object A JSON object that contains the final state of the resource, including a checksum, owner, group, and mode.
id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
initial_state object A JSON object that contains the initial state of the resource, including a checksum, owner, group, and mode.
resource_id string The resource identifier. For example: '/var/cache/mod_auth_openid/mod_auth_openid.db'.
resource_name string The name of the resource. For example: '/var/cache/mod_auth_openid/mod_auth_openid.db'.
resource_result string The resource result. For example: 'delete'.
resource_type string The resource type. For example: 'file'.
run object A JSON object that contains run data, including the chef-client run identifier, the FQDN for the Chef server, the name of the node, and the times at which the chef-client started and finished.
run.chef_server_fqdn string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
run.end_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run finished. For example: '2014-06-05T10:39:43Z'.
run.node_name string The name of the node on which the chef-client run occurred. For example: 'grantmc01-abc'.
run.run_id string The identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '67890123-4567-8901-2345-67890123456789'.
run.start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.
sequence_number integer The sequence number at which the resource converged. For example: 0.

run_start

The following fields are available for the run_start message type:

Field Type Description
chef_server_fqdn string The FQDN for the Chef server against which the instance is running. For example: 'api.chef.io'.
id string The internal message identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '12345678-9012-3456-7890-12345678901211'.
node_name string The name of the node on which the chef-client run occurred. For example: 'grantmc01-abc'.
organization_name string The short name of the organization to which the node belongs. For example: 'chef'.
run_id string The identifier for the chef-client run. For example: '67890123-4567-8901-2345-67890123456789'.
start_time string The ISO timestamp at which the chef-client run started. For example: '2014-06-05T10:34:35Z'.

Functions

Use a function to help specify how rules are applied. A function may be used in when, then, and otherwise sections in rules. A function has the following syntax:

function_name(param1, param2, paramN)

Note

A function that is defined in the when section of a rule MUST return a Boolean value, or it will fail.

alert:<level>()

Use alert:<level>() to generate an audit.

The syntax for this function:

alert:<level>(description)

where:

  • <level> is the audit level: error, info, or warn
  • description is a user-defined value (and may be a Mustache template)

array:contains()

Use array:contains() to look for an attribute in the JSON object, and then determine its value.

The syntax for this function:

array:contains(field, valueToFind)

where:

  • field is an attribute in the JSON oject
  • valueToFind is the value for that attribute

For example:

array:contains(organization_name = 'ponyville')

datetime:component()

Use datetime:component() to specify the date and time at which a rule is applied.

The syntax for this function:

datetime:component(field, 'dateTimeComponent')

where:

  • field is an attribute in the JSON oject
  • dateTimeComponent must be one of the following (lower or uppercase) as a quoted string: era, year_of_era, century_of_era, year_of_century, year, day_of_year, month_of_year, day_of_month, weekyear_of_century, weekyear, week_of_weekyear, day_of_week, halfday_of_day, hour_of_halfday, clockhour_of_halfday, clockhour_of_day, hour_of_day, minute_of_day, minute_of_hour, second_of_day, second_of_minute, millis_of_day, or millis_of_second

For example:

datetime:component(adate, 'era')

get()

Use get() to identify a field, and then identify an associated value.

The syntax for this function:

get(variableToGet, valueToSet OR defaultIfMissing)

where:

  • variableToGet specifies the field to look for
  • valueToSet specifies the value to use
  • defaultIfMissing specifies to use the default value if there is no user-defined value

For example:

rule on action when
  get(foo, false) = false
then
  notify('some_alias')
end

will pass if foo is missing in the JSON object.

log()

Use log() to generate a message using the configured logger as a string.

The syntax for this function:

log(messageToLog)

where:

  • messageToLog is the message that is added to the log

For example:

log('Added rule for org <obj.organization_name>')

mustache_template()

Use mustache_template() to render an expression that is defined in a Mustache template. If the Mustache template is invalid, an error is logged and the expression will return an empty, non-null string.

The syntax for this function:

mustache_template('message_type = {{message.json_attribute}}')

where:

  • message_type is a string that represents the message type
  • message is the JSON message to be passed in
  • json_attribute is a user-defined value in the JSON object

For example:

rule 'test_rule' on action
  when
    true
  then
    set(#foo, mustache_template('Organization = {{message.organization_name}}.'))
end

For more information on the Mustache template format, see https://mustache.github.io.

notify()

Use notify() to configure notifications for a rule. Notifications may be sent with the following notification types: email, webhook, HipChat, and Splunk.

The syntax for this function:

notify(notificationName, stringTemplate)

where:

  • notificationName is the name of the notification to trigger.
  • stringTemplate is an optional Mustache template that defines the notification. The template must evaluate to a valid JSON string.

Field names in the Mustache template must be prefixed by message., e.g. {{message.reported_at}} using a valid field name for the message type. For more information on the Mustache template format, see https://mustache.github.io.

For example:

rules 'Send notification'
  rule on action
    when
      organization_name = 'ponyville' and
      (entity_type = 'foo' or entity_type = 'bar') and
      remote_hostname =~ '33\.3[0-9].*'
    then
      set value #foo = '100'
      set value #xyz = 'test'
      notify('slack', '{
        "text": "{{message.requestor_name}} did something at {{message.recorded_at}}!"
      }')
  end
end

set()

Use set() to set a user-defined value in the JSON object. A user-defined value always begins with #. Prepend values saved by the set() function with user_defined_values to access them later from a notify() or alert() function. Values that are not user-defined may not be modified.

The syntax for this function:

set(#variableToSet, valueToSet)

where:

  • variableToSet is the location of a user-defined value
  • valueToSet is the value

For example:

set(#organization_name, 'ponyville')

Later on in the same rule or another rule in the same group, do:

alert:warn("Check out the org name {{user_defined_values.#organization_name}}")

Examples

The following examples show how to define Chef Analytics rules.

Always Run a Rule

A rule that always fire for the specified message type:

rule "test_rule" on action
when
  true
then
  notify("some_alias")
end

where every action will notify "some_alias".

Raise Audit

The following rule raises an alert when a run_control_group fails, signifying that one or more controls failed:

 rules "throw errors on control group failure"
  rule on run_converge
  when
    true
  then
    alert:info("Run converge detected at {{ message.end_time }} ")
  end

  rule on run_control_group
  when
    true
  then
    // the run_control_group name will appear in double quotes
    alert:info("Run control group \"{{ message.name }}\" failed on {{ message.run.node_name }}")
  end
end

Send a Notification

Using the notify() function, notifications can be sent when a rule’s conditions are met.

Once you’ve created a notification you’ll use its name as the first argument given to the notify() function. For example, suppose you’ve created a notification with the name email-admins:

_images/analytics_email_notification_name.png

This notification could then be triggered by creating a rule that calls notify(), e.g.:

notify("email-admins", "Your message here.")

The below rule would trigger this notification for every run_start message:

rule "Email notification" on run_start
when
  true
then
  notify("email-admins", "Run started on {{message.node_name}}")
end

Regular Expressions

The following rule shows using a regular expression:

rules "user-agent matching"
  rule on action
  when
    get(#user_agent, false) != false
  then
    log("Something else set #user_agent")
  end

  rule on action
  when
    // match if the user_agent starts with the string "Chef Manage"
    user_agent =~ "Chef Manage.*"
  then
    // if #user_agent has been set before
    // this command will overwrite it's value
  set(#user_agent, "Chef Manage")
  end

  rule on action
  when
    // match if the user_agent starts with the string "Chef Client"
    user_agent =~ "Chef Client.*"
  then
    set(#user_agent, "Chef Client")
  end

  rule on action
  when
    get(#user_agent, false) != false
  then
    alert:info("User agent {{user_defined_values.#user_agent}}")
  end
end

Notify on Port 23

The following rule shows how to define a rule that sends a notification when a machine is listening for connections on port 23:

rules "pci check telnet port"
  rule on run_control
  when
    name = "should be listening" and
    resource_type = "port" and
    resource_name = 23 and
    status != "success"
  then
    alert:error("Encrypt all non-console administrative access such as browser/Web-based management tools.")
    notify("some_alias", "A machine is listening for connections on port 23!")
  end
end

User-defined Values

The following rule sets, and then uses a user-defined value:

rules "user-agent matching"
  rule on action
  when
    entity_name = "app1"
  then
    set(#foo, requestor_name)
  otherwise
    set(#bar, task)
  end

  // ... other rules could go here

  rule on action
  when
    // #foo might be undefined, so use get()
    // to supply a default value of false to perform the
    // test
    get(#foo, false) != false
  then
    alert:info(#foo)
  end
end

Verify Dates

The following rule checks the day of the week on which an action runs:

rules "Check deploy day of week"
  rule "my rule" on action
  when
    // DAY_OF_WEEK uses 1 -> 7 for Monday -> Sunday
    datetime:component(recorded_at, "DAY_OF_WEEK") >= 5
  then
    // set a user defined value
    set(#alert, 'action detected on a Friday, Saturday, or Sunday'),
  end
end

Verify Resource Updates

The following rule verifies if resources have been updated on a run_converge:

rules "Match a run converge"
  rule on run_converge
  when
    total_resource_count > 1 and
    updated_resource_count > 0
  then
    alert:info("Run converge detected at {{ message.end_time }} ")
  end
end

Verify Run-lists

The following rule verfies if a specific role appears in a run-list:

rules "Check a converge run_list"
  rule on run_converge
  when
    array:contains(run_list, 'role[opscode-reporting]')
  then
    alert:info("run_list contains role[opscode-reporting]")
  end
end