This section will dive into the implementation details of important Chef Habitat components. These topics are for advanced users. It is not necessary to learn these concepts in order to use Chef Habitat.
The Chef Habitat Supervisor is similar in some ways to well-known process supervisors like systemd, runit or smf. It accepts and passes POSIX signals to its child processes, restarts child processes if and when they fail, ensures that children processes terminate cleanly, and so on.
Because the basic functionality of process supervision is well-known, this document does not discuss those details. Instead, this document focuses strictly on the internals of the feature that makes the Chef Habitat Supervisor special: the fact that each Supervisor is connected to others in a peer-to-peer, masterless network which we refer to as a ring. This allows Supervisors to share configuration data with one another and adapt to changing conditions in the ring by modifying their own configuration.
- The Butterfly keeps track of “members”; each Chef Habitat Supervisor is a single member.
- All the members a given member is connected to are its “peers”. A member is seeded with a list of “initial peers”.
- The status of a given member, from the perspective of its peers.
- A piece of data shared with all the members of a ring; examples are election, membership, services, or configuration.
- How many times a given rumor has been shared with a given member
- All the members connected to one another form a Ring
- A counter used to determine which message is “newer”
Supervisors are configured to form a network by using the
--peer argument and pointing them at peers that already exist. In a real-life deployment scenario, Supervisors in a network may also have a shared encryption key, so that inter-Supervisor traffic is encrypted. (See the security documentation for more details.)
Supervisor rings can be very large, comprising thousands of supervisors. The Supervisor communication protocol is low-bandwidth and designed to not interfere with your application’s actual production traffic.
Rings are divided into service groups, each of which has a name. All Supervisors within a service group share the same configuration and topology.
Chef Habitat uses a gossip protocol named “Butterfly”. It is a variant of SWIM for membership and failure detection (over UDP), and a ZeroMQ based variant of Newscast for gossip. This protocol provides failure detection, service discovery, and leader election to the Chef Habitat Supervisor.
Butterfly is an eventually consistent system - it says, with a very high degree of probability, that a given piece of information will be received by every member of the network. It makes no guarantees as to when that state will arrive; in practice, the answer is usually “quite quickly”.
Supervisors communicate with each other using UDP and TCP, both using port 9638.
Butterfly encrypts traffic on the wire using Curve25519 and a symmetric key. If a ring is configured to use transport level encryption, only members with a matching key are allowed to communicate.
Service Configuration and Files can both be encrypted with public keys.
Membership and Failure Detection
Butterfly servers keep track of what members are present in a ring, and are constantly checking each other for failure. Any given member is in one of four health states:
- this member is responding to health checks.
- this member has stopped responding to our health check, and will be marked confirmed if we do not receive proof it is still alive soon.
- this member has been un-responsive long enough that we can cease attempting to check its health.
- this member has been intentionally kicked out of the ring for behavior unbecoming of a Supervisor, and is prevented from rejoining. This is accomplished with
The essential flow is:
- Randomize the list of all known members who are not Confirmed or Departed.
- Every 3.1 seconds, pop a member off the list, and send it a “PING” message.
- If we receive an “ACK” message before 1 second elapses, the member remains Alive.
- If we do not receive an “ACK” in 1 second, choose 5 peers (the “PINGREQ targets”), and send them a “PINGREQ(member)” message for the member who failed the PING.
- If any of our PINGREQ targets receive an ACK, they forward it to us, and the member remains Alive.
- If we do not receive an ACK via PINGREQ with 2.1 seconds, we mark the member as Suspect, and set an expiration timer of 9.3 seconds.
- If we do not receive an Alive status for the member within the 9.3 second suspicion expiration window, the member is marked as Confirmed.
- Move on to the next member, until the list is exhausted; start the process again.
When a Supervisor sends the PING, ACK and PINGREQ messages, it includes information about the 5 most recent members. This enables membership to be gossiped through the failure protocol itself.
This process provides several nice attributes:
- It is resilient to partial network partitions.
- Due to the expiration of suspected members, confirmation of death spreads quickly.
- The amount of network traffic generated by a given node is constant, regardless of network size.
- The protocol uses single UDP packets which fit within 512 bytes.
Butterfly differs from SWIM in the following ways:
- Rather than sending messages to update member state, we send the entire member.
- We support encryption on the wire.
- Payloads are protocol buffers.
- We support “persistent” members - these are members who will continue to have the failure detection protocol run against them, even if they are confirmed dead. This enables the system to heal from long-lived total partitions.
- Members who are confirmed dead, but who later receive a membership rumor about themselves being suspected or confirmed, respond by spreading an Alive rumor with a higher incarnation. This allows members who return from a partition to re-join the ring gracefully.
Butterfly uses ZeroMQ to disseminate rumors throughout the network. Its flow:
- Randomize the list of all known members who are not Confirmed dead.
- Every second, take 5 members from the list.
- Send each member every rumor that has a Heat lower than 3; update the heat for each rumor sent.
- When the list is exhausted, start the loop again.
Whats good about this system:
- ZeroMQ provides a scalable PULL socket, that processes incoming messages from multiple peers as a single fair-queue.
- It has no back-chatter - messages are PUSH-ed to members, but require no receipt acknowledgement.
- Messages are sent over TCP, giving them some durability guarantees.
- In common use, the gossip protocol becomes inactive; if there are no rumors to send to a given member, nothing is sent.
- SWIM: Scalable Weakly-consistent Infection-style Process Group Membership Protocol by Abhinandan Das, Indranil Gupta, and Ashish Motivala.
- A Robust and Scalable Peer-to-Peer Gossiping Protocol by Spyros Voulgaris, Mark Jelasity, and Maarten van Steen.
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