Ohai Custom Plugins

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Custom Ohai plugins describe additional configuration attributes to be collected by Ohai and provided to the chef-client during chef runs.

See About Ohai for information on Ohai configuration and usage.

Syntax

The syntax for an Ohai plugin is as follows:

Ohai.plugin(:Name) do
  include Ohai::Name
  provides 'attribute', 'attribute/subattribute'
  depends 'attribute', 'attribute'

  def shared_method
    # some Ruby code that defines the shared method
    attribute my_data
  end

  collect_data(:default) do
    # some Ruby code
    attribute my_data
  end

  collect_data(:platform...) do
    # some Ruby code that defines platform-specific requirements
    attribute my_data
  end

end

where

  • Required. (:Name) is used to identify the plugin; when two plugins have the same (:Name), those plugins are joined together and run as if they were a single plugin. This value must be a valid Ruby class name, starting with a capital letter and containing only alphanumeric characters
  • include is a standard Ruby method that allows an Ohai plugin to include a class, such as Ohai::Mixin::ModuleName
  • Required. provides is a comma-separated list of one (or more) attributes that are defined by this plugin. This attribute will become an automatic attribute (i.e. node[:attribute]) after it is collected by Ohai at the start of the chef-client run. An attribute can also be defined using an attribute/subattribute pattern
  • depends is a comma-separated list of one (or more) attributes that are collected by another plugin; as long as the value is collected by another Ohai plugin, it can be used by any plugin
  • shared_method defines code that can be shared among one (or more) collect_data blocks; for example, instead of defining a mash for each collect_data block, the code can be defined as a shared method, and then called from any collect_data block
  • collect_data is a block of Ruby code that is called by Ohai when it runs; one (or more) collect_data blocks can be defined in a plugin, but only a single collect_data block is ever run.
  • collect_data(:default) is the code block that runs when a node’s platform is not defined by a platform-specific collect_data block
  • collect_data(:platform) is a platform-specific code block that is run when a match exists between the node’s platform and this collect_data block; only one collect_data block may exist for each platform; possible values: :aix, :darwin, :freebsd, :hpux, :linux, :openbsd, :netbsd, :solaris2, :windows, or any other value from RbConfig::CONFIG['host_os']
  • my_data is string (a string value) or an empty mash ({ :setting_a => 'value_a', :setting_b => 'value_b' }). This is used to define the data that should be collected by the plugin

For example, the following plugin looks up data on virtual machines hosted in Amazon EC2, Google Compute Engine, Rackspace, Eucalyptus, Linode, OpenStack, and Microsoft Azure:

Ohai.plugin(:Cloud) do
  provides 'cloud'

  depends 'ec2'
  depends 'gce'
  depends 'rackspace'
  depends 'eucalyptus'
  depends 'linode'
  depends 'openstack'
  depends 'azure'

  def create_objects
    cloud Mash.new
    cloud[:public_ips] = Array.new
    cloud[:private_ips] = Array.new
  end

  ...

  def on_gce?
    gce != nil
  end

  def get_gce_values
    cloud[:public_ipv4] = []
    cloud[:local_ipv4] = []

    public_ips = gce['instance']['networkInterfaces'].collect do |interface|
      if interface.has_key?('accessConfigs')
        interface['accessConfigs'].collect{|ac| ac['externalIp']}
      end
    end.flatten.compact

    private_ips = gce['instance']['networkInterfaces'].collect do |interface|
      interface['ip']
    end.compact

    cloud[:public_ips] += public_ips
    cloud[:private_ips] += private_ips
    cloud[:public_ipv4] +=  public_ips
    cloud[:public_hostname] = nil
    cloud[:local_ipv4] += private_ips
    cloud[:local_hostname] = gce['instance']['hostname']
    cloud[:provider] = 'gce'
  end

  ...

  # with following similar code blocks for each cloud provider

where

  • provides defines the cloud attribute, which is then turned into an object using the create_objects shared method, which then generates a hash based on public or private IP addresses
  • if the cloud provider is Google Compute Engine, then based on the IP address for the node, the cloud attribute data is populated into a hash

To see the rest of the code in this plugin, go to: https://github.com/chef/ohai/blob/master/lib/ohai/plugins/cloud.rb.

Ohai DSL Methods

The Ohai DSL is a Ruby DSL that is used to define an Ohai plugin and to ensure that Ohai collects the right data at the start of every chef-client run. The Ohai DSL is a small DSL with a single method that is specific to Ohai plugins. Because the Ohai DSL is a Ruby DSL, anything that can be done using Ruby can also be done when defining an Ohai plugin.

collect_data

The collect_data method is a block of Ruby code that is called by Ohai when it runs. One (or more) collect_data blocks can be defined in a plugin, but only a single collect_data block is ever run. The collect_data block that is run is determined by the platform on which the node is running, which is then matched up against the available collect_data blocks in the plugin.

  • A collect_data(:default) block is used when Ohai is not able to match the platform of the node with a collect_data(:platform) block in the plugin
  • A collect_data(:platform) block is required for each platform that requires non-default behavior

When Ohai runs, if there isn’t a matching collect_data block for a platform, the collect_data(:default) block is used. The syntax for the collect_data method is:

collect_data(:default) do
  # some Ruby code
end

or:

collect_data(:platform) do
  # some Ruby code
end

where:

  • :default is the name of the default collect_data block
  • :platform is the name of a platform, such as :aix for AIX or :windows for Microsoft Windows

Use a Mash

Use a mash to store data. This is done by creating a new mash, and then setting an attribute to it. For example:

provides 'name_of_mash'
name_of_mash Mash.new
name_of_mash[:attribute] = 'value'

Examples

The following examples show how to use the collect_data block:

Ohai.plugin(:Azure) do
  provides 'azure'

  collect_data do
    azure_metadata_from_hints = hint?('azure')
    if azure_metadata_from_hints
      Ohai::Log.debug('azure_metadata_from_hints is present.')
      azure Mash.new
      azure_metadata_from_hints.each {|k, v| azure[k] = v }
    else
      Ohai::Log.debug('No hints present for azure.')
      false
    end
  end
end

or:

require 'ohai/mixin/ec2_metadata'
extend Ohai::Mixin::Ec2Metadata

Ohai.plugin do
  provides 'openstack'

  collect_data do
    if hint?('openstack') || hint?('hp')
      Ohai::Log.debug('ohai openstack')
      openstack Mash.new
      if can_metadata_connect?(EC2_METADATA_ADDR,80)
        Ohai::Log.debug('connecting to the OpenStack metadata service')
        self.fetch_metadata.each {|k, v| openstack[k] = v }
        case
        when hint?('hp')
          openstack['provider'] = 'hp'
        else
          openstack['provider'] = 'openstack'
        end
      else
        Ohai::Log.debug('unable to connect to the OpenStack metadata service')
      end
    else
      Ohai::Log.debug('NOT ohai openstack')
    end
  end
end

require

The require method is a standard Ruby method that can be used to list files that may be required by a platform, such as an external class library. As a best practice, even though the require method is often used at the top of a Ruby file, it is recommended that the use of the require method be used as part of the platform-specific collect_data block. For example, the Ruby WMI is required with Microsoft Windows:

collect_data(:windows) do
  require 'ruby-wmi'
  WIN32OLE.codepage = WIN32OLE::CP_UTF8

  kernel Mash.new

  host = WMI::Win32_OperatingSystem.find(:first)
  kernel[:os_info] = Mash.new
  host.properties_.each do |p|
    kernel[:os_info][p.name.wmi_underscore.to_sym] = host.send(p.name)
  end

  ...

end

Ohai will attempt to fully qualify the name of any class by prepending Ohai:: to the loaded class. For example both:

require Ohai::Mixin::ShellOut

and:

require Mixin::ShellOut

are both understood by the Ohai in the same way: Ohai::Mixin::ShellOut.

When a class is an external class (and therefore should not have Ohai:: prepended), use :: to let the Ohai know. For example:

::External::Class::Library

/common Directory

The /common directory stores code that is used across all Ohai plugins. For example, a file in the /common directory named virtualization.rb that includes code like the following:

module Ohai
  module Common
    module Virtualization

      def host?(virtualization)
        !virtualization.nil? && virtualization[:role].eql?('host')
      end

      def open_virtconn(system)
        begin
          require 'libvirt'
          require 'hpricot'
        rescue LoadError => e
          Ohai::Log.debug('Cannot load gem: #{e}.')
        end

        emu = (system.eql?('kvm') ? 'qemu' : system)
        virtconn = Libvirt::open_read_only('#{emu}:///system')
      end

      ...

      def networks(virtconn)
        networks = Mash.new
        virtconn.list_networks.each do |n|
          nv = virtconn.lookup_network_by_name n
          networks[n] = Mash.new
          networks[n][:xml_desc] = (nv.xml_desc.split('\n').collect {|line| line.strip}).join
          ['bridge_name','uuid'].each {|a| networks[n][a] = nv.send(a)}
          #xdoc = Hpricot networks[n][:xml_desc]
        end
        networks
      end

      ...

    end
  end
end

can then be leveraged in a plugin by using the require method to require the virtualization.rb file and then later calling each of the methods in the required module:

require 'ohai/common/virtualization'

Ohai.plugin(:Virtualization) do
  include Ohai::Common::Virtualization

  provides 'virtualization'
  %w{ capabilities domains networks storage }.each do |subattr|
    provides 'virtualization/#{subattr}'
  end

  collect_data(:linux) do
    virtualization Mash.new

    ...

    if host?(virtualization)
      v = open_virtconn(virtualization[:system])

      virtualization[:libvirt_version] = libvirt_version(v)
      virtualization[:nodeinfo] = nodeinfo(v)
      virtualization[:uri] = uri(v)
      virtualization[:capabilities] = capabilities(v)
      virtualization[:domains] = domains(v)
      virtualization[:networks] = networks(v)
      virtualization[:storage] = storage(v)

      close_virtconn(v)
    end

Shared Methods

A shared method defines behavior that may be used by more than one collect_data block, such as a data structure, a hash, or a mash. The syntax for a shared method is:

def a_shared_method
  # some Ruby code that defines the shared method
end

For example, the following shared method is used to collect data about various cloud providers, depending on the cloud provider and the type of IP address:

def create_objects
  cloud Mash.new
  cloud[:public_ips] = Array.new
  cloud[:private_ips] = Array.new
end

and then later on in the same plugin, the cloud object can be reused:

def get_linode_values
  cloud[:public_ips] << linode['public_ip']
  cloud[:private_ips] << linode['private_ip']
  cloud[:public_ipv4] = linode['public_ipv4']
  cloud[:public_hostname] = linode['public_hostname']
  cloud[:local_ipv4] = linode['local_ipv4']
  cloud[:local_hostname] = linode['local_hostname']
  cloud[:provider] = 'linode'
end

and

def get_azure_values
  cloud[:vm_name] = azure['vm_name']
  cloud[:public_ips] << azure['public_ip']
  cloud[:public_fqdn] = azure['public_fqdn']
  cloud[:public_ssh_port] = azure['public_ssh_port'] if azure['public_ssh_port']
  cloud[:public_winrm_port] = azure['public_winrm_port'] if azure['public_winrm_port']
  cloud[:provider] = 'azure'
end

and so on, for each of the various cloud providers.

Logging

Use the Ohai::Log class in an Ohai plugin to define log entries that are created by Ohai. The syntax for a log message is as follows:

Ohai::Log.log_type('message')

where

  • log_type can be .debug, .info, .warn, .error, or .fatal
  • 'message' is the message that is logged.

For example:

Ohai.plugin do
  provides 'openstack'

  collect_data do
    if hint?('openstack') || hint?('hp')
      Ohai::Log.debug('ohai openstack')
      openstack Mash.new
      if can_metadata_connect?(EC2_METADATA_ADDR,80)
        Ohai::Log.debug('connecting to the OpenStack metadata service')
        self.fetch_metadata.each {|k, v| openstack[k] = v }
        case
        when hint?('hp')
          openstack['provider'] = 'hp'
        else
          openstack['provider'] = 'openstack'
        end
      else
        Ohai::Log.debug('unable to connect to the OpenStack metadata service')
      end
    else
      Ohai::Log.debug('NOT ohai openstack')
    end
  end
end

rescue

Use the rescue clause to make sure that a log message is always provided. For example:

rescue LoadError => e
  Ohai::Log.debug('ip_scopes: cannot load gem, plugin disabled: #{e}')
end

Examples

Note

See https://github.com/rackerlabs/ohai-plugins/tree/master/plugins for some great examples of custom Ohai plugins.

The following examples show different ways of building Ohai plugins.

collect_data Blocks

The following Ohai plugin uses multiple collect_data blocks and shared methods to define platforms:

Ohai.plugin(:Hostname) do
  provides 'domain', 'fqdn', 'hostname'

  def from_cmd(cmd)
    so = shell_out(cmd)
    so.stdout.split($/)[0]
  end

  def collect_domain
    if fqdn
      fqdn =~ /.+?\.(.*)/
      domain $1
    end
  end

  collect_data(:aix, :hpux) do
    hostname from_cmd('hostname -s')
    fqdn from_cmd('hostname')
    domain collect_domain
  end

  collect_data(:darwin, :netbsd, :openbsd) do
    hostname from_cmd('hostname -s')
    fqdn from_cmd('hostname')
    domain collect_domain
  end

  collect_data(:freebsd) do
    hostname from_cmd('hostname -s')
    fqdn from_cmd('hostname -f')
    domain collect_domain
  end

  collect_data(:linux) do
    hostname from_cmd('hostname -s')
    begin
      fqdn from_cmd('hostname --fqdn')
    rescue
      Ohai::Log.debug('hostname -f returned an error, probably no domain is set')
    end
    domain collect_domain
  end

  collect_data(:solaris2) do
    require 'socket'

    hostname from_cmd('hostname')

    fqdn_lookup = Socket.getaddrinfo(hostname, nil, nil, nil, nil, Socket::AI_CANONNAME).first[2]
    if fqdn_lookup.split('.').length > 1
      # we received an fqdn
      fqdn fqdn_lookup
    else
      # default to assembling one
      h = from_cmd('hostname')
      d = from_cmd('domainname')
      fqdn '#{h}.#{d}'
    end

    domain collect_domain
  end

  collect_data(:windows) do
    require 'ruby-wmi'
    require 'socket'

    host = WMI::Win32_ComputerSystem.find(:first)
    hostname '#{host.Name}'

    info = Socket.gethostbyname(Socket.gethostname)
    if info.first =~ /.+?\.(.*)/
      fqdn info.first
    else
      # host is not in dns. optionally use:
      # C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\etc\hosts
      fqdn Socket.gethostbyaddr(info.last).first
    end

   domain collect_domain
  end
end

Use a mixin Library

The following Ohai example shows a plugin can use a mixin library and also depend on another plugin:

require 'ohai/mixin/os'

Ohai.plugin(:Os) do
  provides 'os', 'os_version'
  depends 'kernel'

  collect_data do
    os collect_os
    os_version kernel[:release]
  end
end

Get Kernel Values

The following Ohai example shows part of a file that gets initial kernel attribute values:

Ohai.plugin(:Kernel) do
  provides 'kernel', 'kernel/modules'

  def init_kernel
    kernel Mash.new
    [['uname -s', :name], ['uname -r', :release],
    ['uname -v', :version], ['uname -m', :machine]].each do |cmd, property|
      so = shell_out(cmd)
      kernel[property] = so.stdout.split($/)[0]
    end
    kernel
  end

  ...

  collect_data(:darwin) do
    kernel init_kernel
    kernel[:os] = kernel[:name]

    so = shell_out('sysctl -n hw.optional.x86_64')
    if so.stdout.split($/)[0].to_i == 1
      kernel[:machine] = 'x86_64'
    end

    modules = Mash.new
    so = shell_out('kextstat -k -l')
    so.stdout.lines do |line|
      if line =~ /(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+0x[0-9a-f]+\s+0x([0-9a-f]+)\s+0x[0-9a-f]+\s+([a-zA-Z0-9\.]+) \(([0-9\.]+)\)/
        kext[$4] = { :version => $5, :size => $3.hex, :index => $1, :refcount => $2 }
      end
    end

    kernel[:modules] = modules
  end

  ...

Migrating Ohai 6 Plugins

Ohai 7 (Chef 11.12) introduced a new and more robust plugin DSL. In Ohai/Chef 14, support for loading existing Ohai V6 plugins will be removed. It is recommended that all Ohai 6 plugins be updated for new DSL behavior in Ohai 7 as soon as possible. When migrating Ohai 6 plugins to Ohai 7, consider the following:

  • Pick a name for the existing plugin, and then define it as an Ohai 7 plugin
  • Convert the required_plugin() calls to depends statements
  • Move the Ohai 6 plugin logic into a collect_data() block

For example, Ohai 6:

provides 'my_app'

require_plugin('kernel')

my_app Mash.new
my_app[:version] = shell_out('my_app -v').stdout
my_app[:message] = 'Using #{kernel[:version]}'

and then Ohai 7:

Ohai.plugin(:MyAPP) do
  provides 'my_app'
  depends 'kernel'

  collect_data do
    my_app Mash.new
    my_app[:version] = shell_out('my_app -v').stdout
    my_app[:message] = 'Using #{kernel[:version]}'
  end
end

Another example, for Ohai 6:

provide 'ipaddress'
require_plugin '#{os}::network'
require_plugin '#{os}::virtualization'
require_plugin 'passwd'

if virtualization['system'] == 'vbox'
  if etc['passwd'].any? { |k,v| k == 'vagrant'}
    if network['interfaces']['eth1']
      network['interfaces']['eth1']['addresses'].each do |ip, params|
        if params['family'] == ('inet')
          ipaddress ip
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

and then Ohai 7:

Ohai.plugin(:Vboxipaddress) do
  provides 'ipaddress'
  depends 'ipaddress', 'network/interfaces', 'virtualization/system', 'etc/passwd'
  collect_data(:default) do
    if virtualization['system'] == 'vbox'
      if etc['passwd'].any? { |k,v| k == 'vagrant'}
        if network['interfaces']['eth1']
          network['interfaces']['eth1']['addresses'].each do |ip, params|
            if params['family'] == ('inet')
              ipaddress ip
            end
          end
        end
      end
    end
  end
end