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Common Resource Functionality

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All resources (including custom resources) share a set of common actions, properties, conditional executions, notifications, and relative path options.

Actions

The following actions may be used with any resource:

:nothing

This resource block does not act unless notified by another resource to take action. Once notified, this resource block either runs immediately or is queued up to run at the end of a Chef Infra Client run.

Examples

The following examples show how to use common actions in a recipe.

Use the :nothing action

service 'memcached' do
  action :nothing
end

Properties

The following properties are common to every resource:

compile_time

Ruby Type: true, false | Default Value: false

Control the phase during which the resource is run on the node. Set to true to run while the resource collection is being built (the compile phase). Set to false to run while Chef Infra Client is configuring the node (the converge phase).

ignore_failure

Ruby Type: true, false, :quiet | Default Value: false

Continue running a recipe if a resource fails for any reason. :quiet will not display the full stack trace and the recipe will continue to run if a resource fails.

retries

Ruby Type: Integer | Default Value: 0

The number of attempts to catch exceptions and retry the resource.

retry_delay

Ruby Type: Integer | Default Value: 2

The retry delay (in seconds).

sensitive

Ruby Type: true, false | Default Value: false

Ensure that sensitive resource data is not logged by Chef InfraClient.

Examples

The following examples show how to use common properties in a recipe.

Use the ignore_failure common property

gem_package 'syntax' do
  action :install
  ignore_failure true
end

Use the retries common property

service 'apache' do
  action [ :enable, :start ]
  retries 3
end

Guards

A guard property can be used to evaluate the state of a node during the execution phase of a Chef Infra Client run. Based on the results of this evaluation, a guard property is then used to tell Chef Infra Client if it should continue executing a resource. A guard property accepts either a string value or a Ruby block value:

  • A string is executed as a shell command. If the command returns 0, the guard is applied. If the command returns any other value, then the guard property is not applied. String guards in a powershell_script run Windows PowerShell commands and may return true in addition to 0.
  • A block is executed as Ruby code that must return either true or false. If the block returns true, the guard property is applied. If the block returns false, the guard property is not applied.

A guard property is useful for ensuring that a resource is idempotent by allowing that resource to test for the desired state as it is being executed, and then if the desired state is present, for Chef Infra Client to do nothing.

Note

When using the not_if and only_if guards with the execute resource, the guard’s environment is inherited from the resource’s environment. For example:

execute 'bundle install' do
  cwd '/myapp'
  not_if 'bundle check' # This is run from /myapp
end

Properties

The following properties can be used to define a guard that is evaluated during the execution phase of a Chef Infra Client run:

not_if

Prevent a resource from executing when the condition returns true.

only_if

Allow a resource to execute only if the condition returns true.

Arguments

The following arguments can be used with the not_if or only_if guard properties:

:user

Specify the user that a command will run as. For example:

not_if 'grep adam /etc/passwd', user: 'adam'
:group

Specify the group that a command will run as. For example:

not_if 'grep adam /etc/passwd', group: 'adam'
:environment

Specify a Hash of environment variables to be set. For example:

not_if 'grep adam /etc/passwd', environment: {
  'HOME' => '/home/adam',
}
:cwd

Set the current working directory before running a command. For example:

not_if 'grep adam passwd', cwd: '/etc'
:timeout

Set a timeout for a command. For example:

not_if 'sleep 10000', timeout: 10

not_if Examples

Update if not already updated

The following example shows how to use not_if to guard against running the apt-get-update command when a file already exists that is the same as the updated file:

execute 'apt-get-update' do
  command 'apt-get update'
  ignore_failure true
  not_if { ::File.exist?('/var/lib/apt/periodic/update-success-stamp') }
end

Ensure a node can resolve a host

The following example shows how to use a custom block of Ruby code to ensure that a node can resolve the host. If the node can resolve the host, Chef Infra Client will do nothing. If the node cannot resolve the host, Chef Infra Client will configure the host:

ruby_block 'ensure node can resolve API FQDN' do
  block do
    fe = Chef::Util::FileEdit.new('/etc/hosts')
    fe.insert_line_if_no_match(/#{node['chef-server']['api_fqdn']}/,
                               "127.0.0.1 #{node['chef-server']['api_fqdn']}")
    fe.write_file
  end
  not_if { Resolv.getaddress(node['chef-server']['api_fqdn']) rescue false }
end

Prevent installs on older versions

The following example shows how to use not_if to prevent ZeroMQ from being installed when the node on which the install is to occur has a version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that is older than version 6.0:

ark 'test_autogen' do
  url 'https://github.com/zeromq/libzmq/tarball/master'
  extension 'tar.gz'
  action :configure
  not_if { platform_family?('rhel') && node['platform_version'].to_f < 6.0 }
end

Set the administrator if not already set

The following example shows how to set the administrator for Nagios on multiple nodes, except when the package already exists on a node:

%w(adminpassword adminpassword-repeat).each do |setting|
  execute "debconf-set-selections::#{node['nagios']['server']['vname']}-cgi::#{node['nagios']['server']['vname']}/#{setting}" do
    command "echo #{node['nagios']['server']['vname']}-cgi #{node['nagios']['server']['vname']}/#{setting} password #{random_initial_password} | debconf-set-selections"
    not_if "dpkg -l #{node['nagios']['server']['vname']}"
  end
end

only_if Examples

Install packages only when necessary

The following example shows how to use only_if with one (or more) cookbook attributes to ensure that packages are only installed when necessary. In this case, three attributes exist in the /attributes/default.rb file: use_openssl, use_pcre, and use_zlib. Each of these attributes are defined as false by default. The only_if attributes are used to test for the presence of these packages on the target node before then asking Chef Infra Client to complete the process of installing these packages. If the packages are already present, Chef Infra Client will do nothing.

package 'libpcre3-dev' do
  only_if { node['haproxy']['source']['use_pcre'] }
end

package 'libssl-dev' do
  only_if { node['haproxy']['source']['use_openssl'] }
end

package 'zlib1g-dev' do
  only_if { node['haproxy']['source']['use_zlib'] }
end

Remove a recipe if it belongs to a specific run-list

The following example shows how to use only_if to only remove a recipe named recipe[ntp::undo], but only when that recipe is part of the recipe[ntp::default] run-list:

ruby_block 'remove ntp::undo from run list' do
  block do
    node.run_list.remove('recipe[ntp::undo]')
  end
  only_if { node.run_list.include?('recipe[ntp::default]') }
end

Re-register ASP.Net if it’s already installed

The following example shows how to use only_if to ensure that Chef Infra Client will attempt to register ASP.NET only if the executable is installed on the system, on both 32- and 64-bit systems:

aspnet_regiis = "#{ENV['WinDir']}\\Microsoft.NET\\Framework\\v4.0.30319\\aspnet_regiis.exe"
execute 'Register ASP.NET v4' do
  command "#{aspnet_regiis} -i"
  only_if { ::File.exist?(aspnet_regiis) }
  action :nothing
end

aspnet_regiis64 = "#{ENV['WinDir']}\\Microsoft.NET\\Framework64\\v4.0.30319\\aspnet_regiis.exe"
execute 'Register ASP.NET v4 (x64)' do
  command "#{aspnet_regiis64} -i"
  only_if { ::File.exist?(aspnet_regiis64) }
  action :nothing
end

Guard Interpreters

Any resource that passes a string command may also specify the interpreter that will be used to evaluate that string command. This is done by using the guard_interpreter property to specify a script-based resource.

Attributes

The guard_interpreter property may be set to any of the following values:

:bash

Evaluates a string command using the bash resource.

:batch

Evaluates a string command using the batch resource. Default value (within a batch resource block): :batch.

:csh

Evaluates a string command using the csh resource.

:default

Default. Executes the default interpreter as identified by Chef Infra Client.

:perl

Evaluates a string command using the perl resource.

:powershell_script

Evaluates a string command using the powershell_script resource. Default value (within a powershell_script resource block): :powershell_script.

:python

Evaluates a string command using the python resource.

:ruby

Evaluates a string command using the ruby resource.

Inheritance

The guard_interpreter property is set to :default by default for the bash, csh, perl, python, and ruby resources. When the guard_interpreter property is set to :default, not_if or only_if guard statements do not inherit properties that are defined by the script-based resource.

Warning

The batch and powershell_script resources inherit properties by default. The guard_interpreter property is set to :batch or :powershell_script automatically when using a not_if or only_if guard statement within a batch or powershell_script resource, respectively.

For example, the not_if guard statement in the following resource example does not inherit the environment property:

bash 'javatooling' do
  environment 'JAVA_HOME' => '/usr/lib/java/jdk1.7/home'
  code 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -start'
  not_if 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -test-started'
end

and requires adding the environment property to the not_if guard statement so that it may use the JAVA_HOME path as part of its evaluation:

bash 'javatooling' do
  environment 'JAVA_HOME' => '/usr/lib/java/jdk1.7/home'
  code 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -start'
  not_if 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -test-started', :environment => 'JAVA_HOME' => '/usr/lib/java/jdk1.7/home'
end

To inherit properties, add the guard_interpreter property to the resource block and set it to the appropriate value:

  • :bash for bash
  • :csh for csh
  • :perl for perl
  • :python for python
  • :ruby for ruby

For example, using the same example as from above, but this time adding the guard_interpreter property and setting it to :bash:

bash 'javatooling' do
  guard_interpreter :bash
  environment 'JAVA_HOME' => '/usr/lib/java/jdk1.7/home'
  code 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -start'
  not_if 'java-based-daemon-ctl.sh -test-started'
end

The not_if statement now inherits the environment property and will use the JAVA_HOME path as part of its evaluation.

Examples

For example, the following code block will ensure the command is evaluated using the default interpreter as identified by Chef Infra Client:

resource 'name' do
  guard_interpreter :default
  # code
end

Lazy Evaluation

In some cases, the value for a property cannot be known until the execution phase of a Chef Infra Client run. In this situation, using lazy evaluation of property values can be helpful. Instead of a property being assigned a value, it may instead be assigned a code block. The syntax for using lazy evaluation is as follows:

property_name lazy { code_block }

where lazy is used to tell Chef Infra Client to evaluate the contents of the code block later on in the resource evaluation process (instead of immediately) and { code_block } is arbitrary Ruby code that provides the value.

For example, a resource that is not doing lazy evaluation:

template 'template_name' do
  # some properties
  path '/foo/bar'
end

and a resource block that is doing lazy evaluation:

template 'template_name' do
  # some properties
  path lazy { ' some Ruby code ' }
end

In the previous examples, the first resource uses the value /foo/bar and the second resource uses the value provided by the code block, as long as the contents of that code block are a valid resource property.

The following example shows how to use lazy evaluation with template variables:

template '/tmp/canvey_island.txt' do
  source 'canvey_island.txt.erb'
  variables(
    lazy do
      { canvey_island: node.run_state['sea_power'] }
    end
  )
end

Notifications

A notification is a property on a resource that listens to other resources in the resource collection and then takes actions based on the notification type (notifies or subscribes).

Timers

A timer specifies the point during a Chef Infra Client run at which a notification is run. The following timers are available:

:before

Specifies that the action on a notified resource should be run before processing the resource block in which the notification is located.

:delayed

Default. Specifies that a notification should be queued up, and then executed at the end of a Chef Infra Client run.

:immediate, :immediately

Specifies that a notification should be run immediately, per resource notified.

Notifies

A resource may notify another resource to take action when its state changes. Specify a 'resource[name]', the :action that resource should take, and then the :timer for that action. A resource may notify more than one resource; use a notifies statement for each resource to be notified.

The syntax for notifies is:

notifies :action, 'resource[name]', :timer

Changed in Chef Client 12.6 to use :before timer with the notifies and subscribes properties to specify that the action on a notified resource should be run before processing the resource block in which the notification is located.

Examples

The following examples show how to use the notifies notification in a recipe.

Delay notifications

template '/etc/nagios3/configures-nagios.conf' do
  # other parameters
  notifies :run, 'execute[test-nagios-config]', :delayed
end

Notify immediately

By default, notifications are :delayed, that is they are queued up as they are triggered, and then executed at the very end of a Chef Infra Client run. To run an action immediately, use :immediately:

template '/etc/nagios3/configures-nagios.conf' do
  # other parameters
  notifies :run, 'execute[test-nagios-config]', :immediately
end

and then Chef Infra Client would immediately run the following:

execute 'test-nagios-config' do
  command 'nagios3 --verify-config'
  action :nothing
end

Notify multiple resources

template '/etc/chef/server.rb' do
  source 'server.rb.erb'
  owner 'root'
  group 'root'
  mode '0755'
  notifies :restart, 'service[chef-solr]', :delayed
  notifies :restart, 'service[chef-solr-indexer]', :delayed
  notifies :restart, 'service[chef-server]', :delayed
end

Notify in a specific order

To notify multiple resources, and then have these resources run in a certain order, do something like the following:

execute 'foo' do
  command '...'
  notifies :create, 'template[baz]', :immediately
  notifies :install, 'package[bar]', :immediately
  notifies :run, 'execute[final]', :immediately
end

template 'baz' do
  ...
  notifies :run, 'execute[restart_baz]', :immediately
end

package 'bar'

execute 'restart_baz'

execute 'final' do
  command '...'
end

where the sequencing will be in the same order as the resources are listed in the recipe: execute 'foo', template 'baz', execute [restart_baz], package 'bar', and execute 'final'.

Reload a service

template '/tmp/somefile' do
  mode '0755'
  source 'somefile.erb'
  notifies :reload, 'service[apache]', :immediately
end

Restart a service when a template is modified

template '/etc/www/configures-apache.conf' do
  notifies :restart, 'service[apache]', :immediately
end

Send notifications to multiple resources

To send notifications to multiple resources, just use multiple attributes. Multiple attributes will get sent to the notified resources in the order specified.

template '/etc/netatalk/netatalk.conf' do
  notifies :restart, 'service[afpd]', :immediately
  notifies :restart, 'service[cnid]', :immediately
end

service 'afpd'
service 'cnid'

Execute a command using a template

The following example shows how to set up IPv4 packet forwarding using the execute resource to run a command named forward_ipv4 that uses a template defined by the template resource:

execute 'forward_ipv4' do
  command 'echo > /proc/.../ipv4/ip_forward'
  action :nothing
end

template '/etc/file_name.conf' do
  source 'routing/file_name.conf.erb'
  notifies :run, 'execute[forward_ipv4]', :delayed
end

where the command property for the execute resource contains the command that is to be run and the source property for the template resource specifies which template to use. The notifies property for the template specifies that the execute[forward_ipv4] (which is defined by the execute resource) should be queued up and run at the end of a Chef Infra Client run.

Restart a service, and then notify a different service

The following example shows how start a service named example_service and immediately notify the Nginx service to restart.

service 'example_service' do
  action :start
  notifies :restart, 'service[nginx]', :immediately
end

Restart one service before restarting another

This example uses the :before notification to restart the php-fpm service before restarting nginx:

service 'nginx' do
  action :restart
  notifies :restart, 'service[php-fpm]', :before
end

With the :before notification, the action specified for the nginx resource will not run until action has been taken on the notified resource (php-fpm).

Notify when a remote source changes

remote_file '/tmp/couch.png' do
  source 'http://couchdb.apache.org/img/sketch.png'
  action :nothing
end

http_request 'HEAD http://couchdb.apache.org/img/sketch.png' do
  message ''
  url 'http://couchdb.apache.org/img/sketch.png'
  action :head
  if ::File.exist?('/tmp/couch.png')
    headers 'If-Modified-Since' => File.mtime('/tmp/couch.png').httpdate
  end
  notifies :create, 'remote_file[/tmp/couch.png]', :immediately
end

Subscribes

A resource may listen to another resource, and then take action if the state of the resource being listened to changes. Specify a 'resource[name]', the :action to be taken, and then the :timer for that action.

Note that subscribes does not apply the specified action to the resource that it listens to - for example:

file '/etc/nginx/ssl/example.crt' do
  mode '0600'
  owner 'root'
end

service 'nginx' do
  subscribes :reload, 'file[/etc/nginx/ssl/example.crt]', :immediately
end

In this case the subscribes property reloads the nginx service whenever its certificate file, located under /etc/nginx/ssl/example.crt, is updated. subscribes does not make any changes to the certificate file itself, it merely listens for a change to the file, and executes the :reload action for its resource (in this example nginx) when a change is detected.

The syntax for subscribes is:

subscribes :action, 'resource[name]', :timer

Examples

The following examples show how to use the subscribes notification in a recipe.

Verify a configuration update

Use the :nothing action (common to all resources) to prevent the test from starting automatically, and then use the subscribes notification to run a configuration test when a change to the template is detected:

execute 'test-nagios-config' do
  command 'nagios3 --verify-config'
  action :nothing
  subscribes :run, 'template[/etc/nagios3/configures-nagios.conf]', :immediately
end

Reload a service when a template is updated

To reload a service that is based on a template, use the template and service resources together in the same recipe, similar to the following:

template '/tmp/somefile' do
  mode '0755'
  source 'somefile.erb'
end

service 'apache' do
  action :enable
  subscribes :reload, 'template[/tmp/somefile]', :immediately
end

where the subscribes notification is used to reload the service whenever the template is modified.

Relative Paths

The following relative paths can be used with any resource:

#{ENV['HOME']}

Use to return the ~ path in Linux and macOS or the %HOMEPATH% in Microsoft Windows.

Examples

template "#{ENV['HOME']}/chef-getting-started.txt" do
  source 'chef-getting-started.txt.erb'
  mode '0755'
end

Run in Compile Phase

Chef Infra Client processes recipes in two phases:

  1. First, each resource in the node object is identified and a resource collection is built. All recipes are loaded in a specific order, and then the actions specified within each of them are identified. This is also referred to as the “compile phase”.
  2. Next, Chef Infra Client configures the system based on the order of the resources in the resource collection. Each resource then examines the node and performs the necessary steps to complete the action. This is also referred to as the “execution phase”.

Typically, actions are processed during the execution phase of a Chef Infra Client run. However, sometimes it is necessary to run an action during the compile phase. For example, a resource can be configured to install a package during the compile phase to ensure that application is available to other resources during the execution phase.

Note

Use the chef_gem resource to install gems that are needed by Chef Infra Client during the execution phase.

Using the compile_time property

Use .run_action(:some_action) at the end of a resource block to run the specified action during the compile phase. For example:

build_essential 'Install compilers' do
  action :nothing
end.run_action(:install)

where action is set to :nothing to ensure the run_action is run during the compile phase and not later during the execution phase.

This can be simplified by using the compile_time flag in Chef Infra Client 16 and later versions:

build_essential 'Install compilers' do
  compile_time true
end

That flag both forces the resource to run at compile time and sets the converge action to :nothing.

The following examples show when (and when not) to use run_action.

Using Custom Resources preferred to forcing to compile time

Compile time execution is often used to install gems before requiring them in recipe code.

This is a poor pattern since gems may depend on native gems which may require installing compilers at compile time.

build_essential 'Install compilers' do
  compile_time true
end

chef_gem 'aws-dsk' do
  compile_time true
end

require 'aws-sdk'

A better strategy is to move the code, which requires the gem, into a custom resource. Since all the actions of custom resources run at converge time, this defers requiring the gem until later in the overall Chef Infra Client execution. Unified mode can also be used in the resource to eliminate compile/converge mode issues entirely:

unified_mode true

action :run do
  build_essential 'Install compilers'

  chef_gem 'aws-sdk'

  require 'aws-sdk'
end

Download and parse a configuration file

A common use case is to download a configuration file, parse it, and then use the values in templates and to control other configuration.

An important distinction to make is that the downloaded configuration file only exists in a temporary state to be used by the Chef Infra Client. It will not be used directly by the system or applications that are managed by the Chef Infra Client.

To download and parse a JSON file and render it in a template, it makes sense to download the file during compile time:

  # the remote_file is being downloaded to a temporary file
  remote_file "#{Chef::Config[:file_cache_path]}/users.json" do
    source "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users"
    compile_time true
  end

  # this parsing needs to happen after the remote_file is downloaded, but will
  # be executed at compile time.
  array = JSON.parse(IO.read("#{Chef::Config[:file_cache_path]}/users.json")

  # the `array.last["phone"]` expression here will also be evaluated at compile
  # time and must be lazied via wrapping the expresssion in `lazy {}`
  file "/tmp/phone_number.txt" do
    content array.last["phone"]
  end

This is considerably cleaner than the alternative of lazy evaluating both the parsing of the JSON and the rendering of the data into the file template, which will happen if the remote_file resource is not run at compile time:

  # the execution of this is now deferred
  remote_file "#{Chef::Config[:file_cache_path]}/users.json" do
    source "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users"
  end

  # it is necessary due to lexical scoping issues to create this variable here
  array = nil

  # the parsing of the JSON is now deferred due to the ruby_block
  ruby_block "parse JSON" do
    block do
      array = JSON.parse(IO.read("#{Chef::Config[:file_cache_path]}/users.json")
    end
  end

  # the argument to the content property must now also be deferred
  file "/tmp/phone_number.txt" do
    content lazy { array.last["phone"] }
  end

This is an example of code that overuses deferred execution, uses more “lazy” evaluation, and is considerably harder to understand and write correctly.

Notifications will not work

Resources that are executed during the compile phase cannot notify other resources. For example:

execute 'ifconfig'

package 'vim-enhanced' do
  compile_time true
  notifies :run, 'execute[ifconfig]', :immediately
end

A better approach in this type of situation is to install the package before the resource collection is built to ensure that it is available to other resources later on.

The best approach to this problem is to use unified mode which eliminates the compile time and converge time distinction, while allowing notifications to work correctly.

Resources that are forced to compile time by default

The ohai_hint and hostname resources run at compile time by default.

This is due to the fact that later resources may consume the node attributes which are set by those resources leading to excessive use of lazy in subsequent resources (and similar issues to the remote_file example above).

The chef_gem resource used to execute at compile time by default, but now we recommend that users move code that executes at compile time to custom resources.

Windows File Security

To support Microsoft Windows security, the template, file, remote_file, cookbook_file, directory, and remote_directory resources support the use of inheritance and access control lists (ACLs) within recipes.

Access Control Lists (ACLs)

The rights property can be used in a recipe to manage access control lists (ACLs), which allow permissions to be given to multiple users and groups. Use the rights property can be used as many times as necessary; Chef Infra Client will apply them to the file or directory as required. The syntax for the rights property is as follows:

rights permission, principal, option_type => value

where

permission

Use to specify which rights are granted to the principal. The possible values are: :read, :write, read_execute, :modify, and :full_control.

These permissions are cumulative. If :write is specified, then it includes :read. If :full_control is specified, then it includes both :write and :read.

(For those who know the Microsoft Windows API: :read corresponds to GENERIC_READ; :write corresponds to GENERIC_WRITE; :read_execute corresponds to GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_EXECUTE; :modify corresponds to GENERIC_WRITE, GENERIC_READ, GENERIC_EXECUTE, and DELETE; :full_control corresponds to GENERIC_ALL, which allows a user to change the owner and other metadata about a file.)

principal

Use to specify a group or user. The principal can be specified by either name or SID. When using name, this is identical to what is entered in the login box for Microsoft Windows, such as user_name, domain\user_name, or user_name@fully_qualified_domain_name. When using a SID, you may use either the standard string representation of a SID (S-R-I-S-S) or one of the SDDL string constants. Chef Infra Client does not need to know if a principal is a user or a group.

option_type

A hash that contains advanced rights options. For example, the rights to a directory that only applies to the first level of children might look something like: rights :write, 'domain\group_name', :one_level_deep => true. Possible option types:

Option TypeDescription
:applies_to_childrenSpecify how permissions are applied to children. Possible values: true to inherit both child directories and files; false to not inherit any child directories or files; :containers_only to inherit only child directories (and not files); :objects_only to recursively inherit files (and not child directories).
:applies_to_selfIndicates whether a permission is applied to the parent directory. Possible values: true to apply to the parent directory or file and its children; false to not apply only to child directories and files.
:one_level_deepIndicates the depth to which permissions will be applied. Possible values: true to apply only to the first level of children; false to apply to all children.

For example:

resource 'x.txt' do
  rights :read, 'S-1-1-0'
  rights :write, 'domain\group'
  rights :full_control, 'group_name_or_user_name'
  rights :full_control, 'user_name', applies_to_children: true
end

or:

rights :read, %w(Administrators Everyone)
rights :full_control, 'Users', applies_to_children: true
rights :write, 'Sally', applies_to_children: :containers_only, applies_to_self: false, one_level_deep: true

Some other important things to know when using the rights attribute:

  • Only inherited rights remain. All existing explicit rights on the object are removed and replaced.
  • If rights are not specified, nothing will be changed. Chef Infra Client does not clear out the rights on a file or directory if rights are not specified.
  • Changing inherited rights can be expensive. Microsoft Windows will propagate rights to all children recursively due to inheritance. This is a normal aspect of Microsoft Windows, so consider the frequency with which this type of action is necessary and take steps to control this type of action if performance is the primary consideration.

Use the deny_rights property to deny specific rights to specific users. The ordering is independent of using the rights property. For example, it doesn’t matter if rights are granted to everyone is placed before or after deny_rights :read, ['Julian', 'Lewis'], both Julian and Lewis will be unable to read the document. For example:

resource 'x.txt' do
  rights :read, 'Everyone'
  rights :write, 'domain\group'
  rights :full_control, 'group_name_or_user_name'
  rights :full_control, 'user_name', applies_to_children: true
  deny_rights :read, %w(Julian Lewis)
end

or:

deny_rights :full_control, ['Sally']

Inheritance

By default, a file or directory inherits rights from its parent directory. Most of the time this is the preferred behavior, but sometimes it may be necessary to take steps to more specifically control rights. The inherits property can be used to specifically tell Chef Infra Client to apply (or not apply) inherited rights from its parent directory.

For example, the following example specifies the rights for a directory:

directory 'C:\mordor' do
  rights :read, 'MORDOR\Minions'
  rights :full_control, 'MORDOR\Sauron'
end

and then the following example specifies how to use inheritance to deny access to the child directory:

directory 'C:\mordor\mount_doom' do
  rights :full_control, 'MORDOR\Sauron'
  inherits false # Sauron is the only person who should have any sort of access
end

If the deny_rights permission were to be used instead, something could slip through unless all users and groups were denied.

Another example also shows how to specify rights for a directory:

directory 'C:\mordor' do
  rights :read, 'MORDOR\Minions'
  rights :full_control, 'MORDOR\Sauron'
  rights :write, 'SHIRE\Frodo' # Who put that there I didn't put that there
end

but then not use the inherits property to deny those rights on a child directory:

directory 'C:\mordor\mount_doom' do
  deny_rights :read, 'MORDOR\Minions' # Oops, not specific enough
end

Because the inherits property is not specified, Chef Infra Client will default it to true, which will ensure that security settings for existing files remain unchanged.