Chef for Microsoft Windows
The Chef Infra Client has specific components that are designed to support unique aspects of the Microsoft Windows platform, including PowerShell, PowerShell DSC, and Internet Information Services (IIS).
Chef Infra Client can be installed on machines running Microsoft Windows in the following ways:
- By bootstraping Chef Infra Client using knife bootstrap from a local workstation using WinRM
- By downloading Chef Infra Client to the target node, and then running the Microsoft Installer Package (MSI) locally
- By using an existing process already in place for managing Microsoft Windows machines, such as System Center
Setting up Windows Workstations
To set up your Windows workstation follow the steps on Chef for Microsoft Windows
Install Chef Infra Client on Windows Nodes
Chef Infra Client is an agent that runs locally on every node that is under management by Chef Infra Server. When Chef Infra Client runs, performs all of the steps required for bringing a node into the expected state, including:
- Registering and authenticating the node with Chef Infra Server
- Building the node object
- Synchronizing cookbooks
- Compiling the resource collection by loading each of the required cookbooks, including recipes, attributes, and all other dependencies
- Taking the appropriate and required actions to configure the node
- Looking for exceptions and notifications, handling each as required
This command has the following syntax:
chef-client OPTION VALUE OPTION VALUE ...
This command has the following option specific to Microsoft Windows:
Cause a Chef Infra Client run to fail when Chef Infra Client does not have administrator privileges in Microsoft Windows.
The recommended minimum amount of RAM available to Chef Infra Client during a Chef Infra Client run is 512MB. Each node and workstation must have access to Chef Infra Server via HTTPS. The Chef Infra Client can be used to manage machines that run on the following versions of Microsoft Windows:
After Chef Infra Client is installed, it is located at
main configuration file for Chef Infra Client is located at
Information for Windows Users
Run With Elevated Privileges
The Chef Infra Client may need to be run with elevated privileges in order to get a recipe to converge correctly. On UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems this can be done by running the command as root. On Microsoft Windows this can be done by running the command prompt as an administrator.
On Microsoft Windows, running without elevated privileges (when they are necessary) is an issue that fails silently. It will appear that Chef Infra Client completed its run successfully, but the changes will not have been made. When this occurs, do one of the following to run Chef Infra Client as the administrator:
Log in to the administrator account. (This is not the same as an account in the administrator’s security group.)
Run Chef Infra Client process from the administrator account while being logged into another account. Run the following command:
runas /user:Administrator "cmd /C chef-client"
This will prompt for the administrator account password.
Open a command prompt by right-clicking on the command prompt application, and then selecting Run as administrator. After the command window opens, Chef Infra Client can be run as the administrator
Spaces and Directories
Directories that are used by Chef products on Windows cannot have
spaces. For example,
C:\Users\User Name will not work, but
C:\Users\UserName will. Chef commands may fail if used against a
directory with a space in its name.
Top-level Directory Names
Windows will throw errors when path name lengths are too long. For this
reason, it’s often helpful to use a very short top-level directory, much
like what is done in UNIX and Linux. For example, Chef uses
install Chef Workstation on macOS. A similar approach can be done on
Microsoft Windows, by creating a top-level directory with a short name.
PATH System Variable
On Microsoft Windows, Chef Infra Client must have two entries added to
PATH environment variable:
This is typically done during the installation of Chef Infra Client
automatically. If these values (for any reason) are not in the
environment variable, Chef Infra Client will not run properly.
To determine the current proxy server on the Microsoft Windows platform:
- Open Internet Properties.
- Open Connections.
- Open LAN settings.
- View the Proxy server setting. If this setting is blank, then a proxy server may not be available.
To configure proxy settings in Microsoft Windows:
- Open System Properties.
- Open Environment Variables.
- Open System variables.
https_proxyto the location of your proxy server. This value MUST be lowercase.
Remotely administering nodes
knife windows subcommand is used to interact with Windows systems
managed by Chef Infra. Nodes are configured using WinRM, which allows
external applications to call native objects like batch scripts, Windows
PowerShell scripts, or scripting library variables. The
subcommand supports NTLM and Kerberos methods of authentication.
Se the knife windows for more information.
WinRM requires that a target node be accessible via the ports configured to support access via HTTP or HTTPS.
Install Chef Infra Client using the MSI Installer
A Microsoft Installer Package (MSI) is available for installing Chef Infra Client on a Microsoft Windows machine from Chef Downloads.
Msiexec.exe is used to install Chef Infra Client on a node as part of a bootstrap operation. The actual command that is run by the default bootstrap script is:
msiexec /qn /i "%LOCAL_DESTINATION_MSI_PATH%"
/qn is used to set the user interface level to “No UI”,
used to define the location in which Chef Infra Client is installed, and
"%LOCAL_DESTINATION_MSI_PATH%" is a variable defined in the default
bootstrap template. See
for more information about the options available to Msiexec.exe.
ADDLOCAL parameter adds two setup options specific to Chef Infra
Client. These options can be passed along with an Msiexec.exe command:
||Use to install Chef Infra Client.|
||Use to configure Chef Infra Client as a scheduled task in Microsoft Windows.|
||Used to install the chef PowerShell module. This will enable chef command line utilities within PowerShell.|
First install Chef Infra Client, and then enable it to run as a scheduled task. For example:
msiexec /qn /i C:\inst\chef-client-15.3.14-1-x64.msi ADDLOCAL="ChefClientFeature,ChefSchTaskFeature,ChefPSModuleFeature"
Enable as a Scheduled Task
To run Chef Infra Client at periodic intervals (so that it can check in with Chef Infra Server automatically), configure Chef Infra Client to run as a scheduled task. This can be done via the MSI, by selecting the Chef Unattended Execution Options –> Chef Infra Client Scheduled Task option on the Custom Setup page or by running the following command after Chef Infra Client is installed:
SCHTASKS.EXE /CREATE /TN ChefClientSchTask /SC MINUTE /MO 30 /F /RU "System" /RP /RL HIGHEST /TR "cmd /c \"C:\opscode\chef\embedded\bin\ruby.exe C:\opscode\chef\bin\chef-client -L C:\chef\chef-client.log -c C:\chef\client.rb\""
Refer to the Schtasks documentation for more details.
After Chef Infra Client is configured to run as a scheduled task, the
default file path is:
Install Chef Infra Client using an Existing Process
Many organizations already have processes in place for managing the applications and settings on various Microsoft Windows machines. For example, System Center. Chef Infra Client can be installed using this method.
Some of the most popular Chef-maintained cookbooks that contain custom resources useful when configuring machines running Microsoft Windows are listed below:
|iis_urlrewrite Cookbook||This cookbook downloads and installs the IIS URL Rewrite 2.0 extension into Microsoft Internet Information Server.|
|PowerShell Cookbook||Installs and configures PowerShell 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 or 5.0.|
|Microsoft Visual C++ Runtime Cookbook||Installs Microsoft Visual C++ runtime version 6 (2005), 9 (2008), 10 (2010), 11 (2012), 12 (2013), 14 (2015) or 15 (2017) on Windows.|
|Windows_dns Cookbook||This cookbook provides a resource for managing DNS on Windows hosts.|
Community Supported Windows Projects
Two community supports two provisioners for Kitchen:
A resource is a statement of configuration policy that:
- Describes the desired state for a configuration item
- Declares the steps needed to bring that item to the desired state
- Specifies a resource type—such as
- Lists additional details (also known as resource properties), as necessary
- Are grouped into recipes, which describe working configurations
Chef Infra provides a growing number of Windows-specific resources.
Windows Compatible Resources
The most popular core resources in Chef Infra Client work the same way in Microsoft Windows as they do on any UNIX- or Linux-based platform.
The file-based resources have attributes that support unique
requirements within the Microsoft Windows platform, including
(for file inheritance),
mode (for octal modes), and
access control lists, or ACLs).