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Knife Azure

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Knife Azure Overview

Microsoft Azure is a cloud hosting platform from Microsoft that provides virtual machines for Linux and Windows Server, cloud and database services, and more. Use the knife azure subcommand to manage API-driven cloud servers hosted by Microsoft Azure.

Note

Review the list of common options available to this (and all) knife subcommands and plugins.

knife-azure version 1.6.0 and later supports Azure Resource Manager. Commands starting with knife azurerm use the Azure Resource Manager API. Commands starting with knife azure use the Azure Service Management API. While you can switch between the two command sets, they are not designed to work together.

Installation

knife-azure ships in Chef Workstation. Install the latest version of Chef Workstation from Chef Downloads

Configuration

ASM Mode

The knife azure (ASM mode) subcommand uses a management certificate for secure communication with Microsoft Azure. The management certificate is required for secure communication with the Microsoft Azure platform via the REST APIs. To generate the management certificate (.pem file):

  1. Download the settings file: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=254432.

  2. Extract the data from the ManagementCertificate field into a separate file named cert.pfx.

  3. Decode the certificate file with the following command:

    base64 -d cert.pfx > cert_decoded.pfx
    
  4. Convert the decoded PFX file to a PEM file with the following command:

    openssl pkcs12 -in cert_decoded.pfx -out managementCertificate.pem -nodes
    

Note

It is possible to generate certificates, and then upload them. See the following link for more information: www.windowsazure.com/en-us/manage/linux/common-tasks/manage-certificates/.

Knife Azure Commands

ag create

Use the ag create argument to create an affinity group.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure ag create (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

-a, --azure-affinity-group GROUP

The affinity group to which the virtual machine belongs. Required when not using a service location. Required when not using --azure-service-location.

--azure-ag-desc DESCRIPTION

The description of the Microsoft Azure affinity group.

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-m LOCATION, --azure-service-location LOCATION

The geographic location for a virtual machine and its services. Required when not using --azure-affinity-group.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

ag list

Use the ag list argument to get a list of affinity groups.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure ag list (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

image list

Use the image list argument to get a list of images that exist in a Microsoft Azure environment. Any image in this list may be used for provisioning.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure image list (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

--full

Show all fields for all images.

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

internal lb create

Use the internal lb create argument to create a new internal load balancer within a cloud service.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure internal lb create (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-dns-name DNS_NAME

The DNS prefix name that will be used to add this loabalancer to. This must be an existing service/deployment.

--azure-lb-static-vip VIP

The Virtual IP that will be used for the load balancer.

--azure-publish-settings-file FILENAME

Your Azure Publish Settings File

--azure-subnet-name SUBNET_NAME

Required if static VIP is set. Specifies the subnename the load balancer is located in.

-c, --config CONFIG

The configuration file to use.

--chef-zero-host HOST

Host for starting chef-zero.

--chef-zero-port PORT

Port (or port range) to start chef-zero on. Port ranges lik1000,1010 or 8889-9999 will try all given ports until one works.

--config-option OPTION=VALUE

Override a single configuration option.

--[no-]color

Use colored output, defaults to enabled.

-d, --disable-editing

Do not open EDITOR, just accept the data as is.

--defaults

Accept default values for all questions

-e, --editor EDITOR

Set the editor to use for interactive commands

-E, --environment ENVIRONMENT

Set the Chef environment (except for in searches where this will be flagrantly ignored)

-F, --format FORMAT

Which format to use for output.

--[no-]fips

Enable fips mode.

--[no-]listen

Whether a local mode (-z) server binds to a port.

-h, --help

Show help message.

-H HOSTNAME, --azure-api-host-name

Your Azure host name

-k, --key KEY

API Client Key

-n, --azure-load-balancer NAME

Required. Specifies new load balancer name.

-p, --azure-mgmt-cert FILENAME

Your Azure PEM file name.

-s, --server-url URL

Chef Infra Server URL.

-S, --azure-subscription-id ID

Your Azure subscription ID

--print-after

Show the data after a destructive operation

--profile PROFILE

The credentials profile to select

-u, --user USER API

Client Username.

-v, --version

Show Chef version.

-V, --verbose

More verbose output. Use twice for maximum verbosity.

--verify-ssl-cert

Verify SSL Certificates for communication over HTTPS.

-y, --yes

Say yes to all prompts for confirmation.

-z, --local-mode

Point knife commands at local repository instead of server.

internal lb list

Use the internal lb create argument to a list of defined load balancers for all cloud services. Does not show public facing load balancers.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure internal lb create (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILENAME

Your Azure Publish Settings File

-c, --config CONFIG

The configuration file to use.

--chef-zero-host HOST

Host for starting chef-zero.

--chef-zero-port PORT

Port (or port range) to start chef-zero on. Port ranges lik1000,1010 or 8889-9999 will try all given ports until one works.

--config-option OPTION=VALUE

Override a single configuration option.

--[no-]color

Use colored output, defaults to enabled.

-d, --disable-editing

Do not open EDITOR, just accept the data as is.

--defaults

Accept default values for all questions

-e, --editor EDITOR

Set the editor to use for interactive commands

-E, --environment ENVIRONMENT

Set the Chef environment (except for in searches where this will be flagrantly ignored)

-F, --format FORMAT

Which format to use for output.

--[no-]fips

Enable fips mode.

--[no-]listen

Whether a local mode (-z) server binds to a port.

-h, --help

Show help message.

-H HOSTNAME, --azure-api-host-name

Your Azure host name

-k, --key KEY

API Client Key

-p, --azure-mgmt-cert FILENAME

Your Azure PEM file name.

-s, --server-url URL

Chef Infra Server URL.

-S, --azure-subscription-id ID

Your Azure subscription ID

--print-after

Show the data after a destructive operation

--profile PROFILE

The credentials profile to select

-u, --user USER API

Client Username.

-v, --version

Show Chef version.

-V, --verbose

More verbose output. Use twice for maximum verbosity.

--verify-ssl-cert

Verify SSL Certificates for communication over HTTPS.

-y, --yes

Say yes to all prompts for confirmation.

-z, --local-mode

Point knife commands at local repository instead of server.

server create

Use the server create argument to create a new Microsoft Azure cloud instance. This will provision a new image in Microsoft Azure, perform a bootstrap (using the SSH protocol), and then install Chef Infra Client on the target system so that it can be used to configure the node and to communicate with a Chef Infra Server.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure server create (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

-a, --azure-affinity-group GROUP

The affinity group to which the virtual machine belongs. Required when not using a service location. Required when not using --azure-service-location.

--auto-update-client

Enable automatic updates for Chef Infra Client in Microsoft Azure. This option may only be used when --bootstrap-protocol is set to cloud-api. Default value: false.

--azure-availability-set NAME

The name of the availability set for the virtual machine.

--azure-dns-name DNS_NAME

Required. The name of the DNS prefix that is used to access the cloud service. This name must be unique within Microsoft Azure. Use with --azure-connect-to-existing-dns to use an existing DNS prefix.

--azure-network-name NETWORK_NAME

The network for the virtual machine.

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

--azure-storage-account STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME

The name of the storage account used with the hosted service. A storage account name may be between 3 and 24 characters (lower-case letters and numbers only) and must be unique within Microsoft Azure.

--azure-subnet-name SUBNET_NAME

The subnet for the virtual machine.

--azure-vm-name NAME

The name of the virtual machine. Must be unique within Microsoft Azure. Required for advanced server creation options.

--azure-vm-ready-timeout TIMEOUT

A number (in minutes) to wait for a virtual machine to reach the provisioning state. Default value: 10.

--azure-vm-startup-timeout TIMEOUT

A number (in minutes) to wait for a virtual machine to transition from the provisioning state to the ready state. Default value: 15.

--bootstrap-protocol PROTOCOL

The protocol used to bootstrap on a machine that is running Windows Server: cloud-api, ssh, or winrm. Default value: winrm.

Use the cloud-api option to bootstrap a machine in Microsoft Azure. The bootstrap operation will enable the guest agent to install, configure, and run Chef Infra Client on a node, after which Chef Infra Client is configured to run as a daemon/service. (This is a similar process to using the Azure portal.)

Microsoft Azure maintains images of Chef Infra Client on the guest, so connectivity between the guest and the workstation from which the bootstrap operation was initiated is not required, after a cloud-api bootstrap is started.

During the cloud-api bootstrap operation, knife does not print the output of a Chef Infra Client run like it does when the winrm and ssh options are used. knife reports only on the status of the bootstrap process: provisioning, installing, ready, and so on, along with reporting errors.

--bootstrap-version VERSION

The version of Chef Infra Client to install.

-c, --azure-connect-to-existing-dns

Add a new virtual machine to the existing deployment and/or service. Use with --azure-dns-name to ensure the correct DNS is used.

--cert-passphrase PASSWORD

The password for the SSL certificate.

--cert-path PATH

The path to the location of the SSL certificate.

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the virtual machine.

--hint HINT_NAME[=HINT_FILE]

An Ohai hint to be set on the target node. See the Ohai documentation for more information. HINT_FILE is the name of the JSON file. HINT_NAME is the name of a hint in a JSON file. Use multiple --hint options to specify multiple hints.

--host-name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-I IMAGE, --azure-source-image IMAGE

The name of the disk image to be used to create the virtual machine.

--identity-file IDENTITY_FILE

The SSH identity file used for authentication. Key-based authentication is recommended.

--identity-file_passphrase PASSWORD

The passphrase for the SSH key. Use only with --identity-file.

-j JSON_ATTRIBS, --json-attributes JSON_ATTRIBS

A JSON string that is added to the first run of a Chef Infra Client.

-m LOCATION, --azure-service-location LOCATION

The geographic location for a virtual machine and its services. Required when not using --azure-affinity-group.

-N NAME, --node-name NAME

The name of the node. Node names, when used with Microsoft Azure, must be 91 characters or shorter.

--[no-]host-key-verify

Use --no-host-key-verify to disable host key verification. Default setting: --host-key-verify.

-o DISK_NAME, --azure-os-disk-name DISK_NAME

The operating system type of the Microsoft Azure OS image: Linux or Windows.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-P PASSWORD, --ssh-password PASSWORD

The SSH password. This can be used to pass the password directly on the command line. If this option is not specified (and a password is required) knife prompts for the password.

--prerelease

Install pre-release gems.

-r RUN_LIST, --run-list RUN_LIST

A comma-separated list of roles and/or recipes to be applied.

-R ROLE_NAME, --role-name ROLE_NAME

The name of the virtual machine.

--ssh-port PORT

The SSH port. Default value: 22.

-t PORT_LIST, --tcp-endpoints PORT_LIST

A comma-separated list of local and public TCP ports that are to be opened. For example: 80:80,433:5000.

--template-file TEMPLATE

The path to a template file to be used during a bootstrap operation.

Deprecated in Chef Client 12.0.

--thumbprint THUMBPRINT

The thumbprint of the SSL certificate.

-u PORT_LIST, ---udp-endpoints PORT_LIST

A comma-separated list of local and public UDP ports that are to be opened. For example: 80:80,433:5000.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

--windows-auth-timeout MINUTES

The amount of time (in minutes) to wait for authentication to succeed. Default value: 25.

-x USER_NAME, --ssh-user USER_NAME

The SSH user name.

-z SIZE, --azure-vm-size SIZE

The size of the virtual machine: ExtraSmall, Small, Medium, Large, or ExtraLarge. Default value: Small.

Examples

Provision an instance using new hosted service and storage accounts

To provision a medium-sized CentOS machine configured as a web server in the West US data center, while reusing existing hosted service and storage accounts, enter something like:

knife azure server create -r "role[webserver]" --service-location "West US"
  --hosted-service-name webservers --storage-account webservers-storage --ssh-user foo
  --ssh--password password --role-name web-apache-0001 --host-name web-apache
  --tcp-endpoints 80:80,8080:8080 --source-image name_of_source_image --role-size Medium

Provision an instance using new hosted service and storage accounts

To provision a medium-sized CentOS machine configured as a web server in the West US data center, while also creating new hosted service and storage accounts, enter something like:

knife azure server create -r "role[webserver]" --service-location "West US" --ssh-user foo
  --ssh--password password --role-name web-apache-0001 --host-name web-apache
  --tcp-endpoints 80:80,8080:8080 --source-image name_of_source_image --role-size Medium

server delete

Use the server delete argument to delete one or more instances that are running in the Microsoft Azure cloud. To find a specific cloud instance, use knife azure server list. Use the --purge option to delete all associated node and client objects from the Chef Infra Server or use the knife node delete and knife client delete subcommands to delete specific node and client objects.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure server delete [SERVER...] (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-dns-name NAME

The name of the DNS server (also known as the Hosted Service Name).

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

--delete-azure-storage-account

Delete any corresponding storage account. When this option is true, any storage account not used by any virtual machine is deleted.

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-N NODE_NAME, --node-name NODE_NAME

The name of the node to be deleted, if different from the server name. This must be used with the -p (purge) option.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-P, --purge

Destroy all corresponding nodes and clients on the Chef Infra Server, in addition to the Microsoft Azure node itself. This action (by itself) assumes that the node and client have the same name as the server; if they do not have the same names, then the --node-name option must be used to specify the name of the node.

--preserve-azure-dns-name

Preserve the DNS entries for the corresponding cloud services. If this option is false, any service not used by any virtual machine is deleted.

--preserve-azure-os-disk

Preserve the corresponding operating system disk.

--preserve-azure-vhd

Preserve the underlying virtual hard disk (VHD).

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

--wait

Pause the console until the server has finished processing the request.

Examples

Delete an instance

To delete an instance named devops12, enter:

knife azure server delete devops12

server list

Use the server list argument to find instances that are associated with a Microsoft Azure account. The results may show instances that are not currently managed by the Chef Infra Server.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure server list (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

server show

Use the server show argument to show the details for the named server (or servers).

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure server show SERVER [SERVER...] (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

vnet create

Use the vnet create argument to create a virtual network.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure vnet create (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

-a, --azure-affinity-group GROUP

The affinity group to which the virtual machine belongs. Required when not using a service location.

--azure-address-space CIDR

The address space of the virtual network. Use with classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) notation.

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

--azure-subnet-name CIDR

The subnet for the virtual machine. Use with classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) notation.

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-n, --azure-network-name NETWORK_NAME

The network for the virtual machine.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.

vnet list

Use the vnet list argument to get a list of virtual networks.

Syntax

This argument has the following syntax:

knife azure vnet list (options)

Options

This argument has the following options:

--azure-publish-settings-file FILE_NAME

The name of the Azure Publish Settings file, including the path. For example: "/path/to/your.publishsettings".

-H HOST_NAME, --azure_host_name HOST_NAME

The host name for the Microsoft Azure environment.

-p FILE_NAME, --azure-mgmt-cert FILE_NAME

The name of the file that contains the SSH public key that is used when authenticating to Microsoft Azure.

-S ID, --azure-subscription-id ID

The subscription identifier for the Microsoft Azure portal.

--verify-ssl-cert

The SSL certificate used to verify communication over HTTPS.